One part of the premises of FEELLIFE fitness studio is intended for a more focused engagement in recreational practise in which it is obligatory to diagnose the overall health, psychological and social condition of a client.
Lots of researches and studies show that advanced recreational sportspeople have better physical body performances than the very sportspeople, if only because of the ever present fun and pleasure element involved…
It is essential for a child to have a check-up with a sports physician immediately prior to beginning any organized engagement in sports activities.
Such check-up is important because, apart from the visible, there are invisible, the so-called latent health disorders, which, when affected by intensive physical activities (trainings and competitions), can lead to more serious even catastrophic health disorders. Sports medicine discovers and controls such disorders, thus preventing heavier disorders in health condition.
In children who train intensively, especially in periods of accelerated growth and development, we often come across deformities in bone and muscle system and also irregularities in development. The cause of this is bones and muscles growing faster than getting stronger, that is, the very function of bones and muscles is lagging behind their growth. When this phenomenon is accompanied by wrong diet (which happens more often than not), here’s the basis for deformities and injuries.
That is why medical check-ups are needed at least twice a year, so as to timely diagnose and properly treat correctible deformities and irregularities and in doing so reduce possibilities of injury to a minimum.
Nowadays children begin to engage in sports as early as at the age of 5 or 6, and some break world records at the age of 13. These children practically grow up on sports grounds. It is essential that their growth and development is supervised by a sports doctor. Check-ups in terms of sports medicine test general health as much as the morphological status and functional abilities of the organism.
Morphological status is understood as: body height, body mass, balance of body composition, that is, percentage of muscle, fatty and bone tissue within a body.
Functional abilities of cardio-respiratory system are direct indicator of the current condition. Based on these data we can tell about a predisposition for certain kind of sports and streamline a child towards appropriate sports activities and in this process a sports psychologist is of great assistance.
Considering how overly exposed top-rate sportspeople are to high intensity physical strain, both in trainings and competitions, they should be at all times accompanied by teams of doctors of various specializations.
Recreational sportspeople are a mixed variety of people who engage in physical activity in a self-organized manner as much as within various recreational programs. In both cases our recreational sportspeople are poorly covered by sports medicine, by contrast to other countries where physical and health cultures are better developed.
Prior to beginning any recreational practice it is important to do a preventive medical check-up, where monitoring heart rate in strain condition is the most important part. This especially applies to people older than 35 as well as to those physically inactive or obese, those with high blood pressure, blood glucoses level or blood fat level. It also applies to those with irregular heartbeat at rest, to smokers and those with genetic predispositions and also to all people living and working in stressful conditions, and these are more and more numerous nowadays.
Based on medical test results on check-up, the sports doctor will make up an appropriate program of recreational activities. They will recommend the type and dynamics of exercise during a week, as well as intensity of exercise which is determined by maximum pulse. Medical check-ups should be repeated after a certain period of time, and their frequency will depend on the age and general health of the recreational sportsperson.
Anthropometry is a method of measuring human body, that is, certain body parts, and it is used for quantitative determination of morphological features. It is also used for getting a perspective on growth condition of the tested person.
Measurement of anthropometric variables is performed according to the international biological program (IBP) and parameters of anthropometric indicators are measured by the procedure which (based on Stoudt and Mc Farlant’s chart) was created by M.Stojanovic and Z.Stojkovic.
This program has 39 linear measures:
Body weight, body height, height in sitting position, diameter of the knee joint (bi-condilar width of the bone), diameter of the ankle (width of the ankle), height of tibial bone, length of the shin, length of the foot, diameter of the thigh, diameter of the shin, length of the arm, length of the upper arm, length of the lower arm, diameter of the elbow joint (bicondilar width of humerus), width of the fist (carpus), width of the hand, diameter of the upper arm in relaxed position, diameter of the upper arm in contraction, width of the shoulders (biacromial span), width of the chest, depth of the chest, diameter of the chest, length of the leg (height of spinae ilaceaeanterior superior), width of the pelvis, length of the pelvis, height of the head, width of the head, width of the lower jaw (width of the lower part of the face)), width of the face, morphological height of the face, width of the mouth, thickness of the mouth, height of the nose, width of the nose, skin fold on the upper arm (over mus. triceps brachil), skin fold on the back (subscapular), skin fold on the stomach, suprasteral height, diameter of the head.
Prior to each measuring it is necessary to mark the points and levels for the purpose of more accurate measuring of anthropometric values. Figure 1 shows the layout of anthropometric marks: akromion (a), akropodion (ap), alare (al), basis (B), cervicale (c), daktylion (da), deltoide) (d), endokanthion (en), euryon (eu), frontotemporale (ft),,glabella (g), gnathion (gn), gonion (go), hypochondricale (hy), iliocristale (ic), incizurale (in), iliospinale (is), inion (i), lumbale (lu), malleolare (m), mesosternale (ms), metacarpale radiale (mr), metacarpale ulnare (mu), metatarsale fibulare (mtf), tibiale (ti), nasion (n), opisthocranion (op), orbitale (or)phalangion (ph), porion (po), postaurale (pa), preaurale (pra), pternion (pte), radiale ®, stomion (sto), stylion (sty), subaurale (sba), subnasale (sn), superaurale (sa), suprasternale (sst), symphiysion (sy), tibiale (ty), tragion (t), trichion (tr), trochanterion (tro), vertex (V), zygion (zg).
The choice of parameters is a precondition for a successful research. The number and type of measuring depends on the aim of the research. With a carefully set and reachable research objective, the planned measuring has to be carried out in a big test group (it is necessary to take one or two parameters which define 4 anthropometric dimensions).
Longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton: body height, height in sitting position,
span of the arms, length of the arm, length of the leg.
Transversal dimensionality of the skeleton: width of the shoulders, width of the pelvis, width of the hips, diameter of the elbow, diameter of the wrist, diameter of the knee.
Body mass and volume: body weight, average circumference of the chest, stomach circumference, upper arm circumference, lower arm circumference, thigh and shin circumference.
Subcutaneous fatty tissue: skin fold on the upper arm, skin fold on the lower arm, skin fold on the back, skin fold on the stomach, skin fold on the thigh and skin fold on the shin.
Accuracy of the results is provided by measuring instruments which are according to the standards and calibrated in the metrical system: measuring tape, medical decimal scales, anthropometer, sliding compasses, pelvimeter, cefalometer and caliper. Besides, dermografic pencils, measuring charts, plain pencils, combined barometer, hygrometer, thermometer and a desk.
Medical decimal scales of the kind which provides accuracy of the measurement within 100gr and with a possibility of regulating the pointer at zero position. The scales are calibrated daily after measuring fifteen to twenty people of the test population. Portable scales which are used for field work have measuring accuracy within 500 grams, because the mechanism of the scales is under direct influence of atmospheric conditions, and after being used for more than 5000 times it should be completely discarded.
Anthropometer by Martinwith marked centimeters and millimeters is used for measuring anthropometric parameters. It is 2 m long and can be taken into four even pieces. Its upper part is often used as sliding compasses to measure some additional anthropometric parameters. It is round or square in form with a moving piece. Measurement span is 200 cm and its accuracy is 0.1 cm. Reading of results is performed on the square opening, on the middle line of the opening which overlaps the taken measurement unit.
Measurement of thickness of subcutaneous fatty tissue is performed with an instrument called caliper. The most suitable type of caliper is “John Bull” with measuring span from 0 to 40 mm (the pointer goes two rounds around a scale calibrated 0 to 20 mm). Prior to measuring it is necessary to check calibration of the instrument. The pressure at which instrument grippers press the skin and subcutaneous fatty tissue is the standard of 10gr/sqmm. The accuracy of reading is 0.2mm (by interpolation accuracy is 0.1mm). Result of measuring is read about 2 seconds after the gripper has taken skin fold, in this interval elasticity of the skin being overcome so the taken results are closer to real. Longer hold of the grippers can cause their moving or sliding which would affect the accuracy of the result. Considering the significant variability of the results in measuring the thickness of one skin fold in the same person, it is necessary to repeat measuring at least three times. The average taken measurement of the thickness of a skin fold is taken as the final measurement result.
Metal tape measure (centimeter tape measure) is used to measure circumference of the body. Centimeter tape measure has accuracy of 0.5 cm whereas metal tape measure has accuracy of 0.1 cm. The length of measuring tape is 150 cm and after 100 uses it is necessary to calibrate the tape according to anthropometer for possibility of its stretching.
Pelvimeter1has a scale on horizontal axis which connects two arms. It serves to measure biacromial and bicrystal width. The arms, which are sharper at the end, are placed on the previously determined marks. The result is read on the inner edge of the sliding scale. The scale is 60 cm wide, calibrated to 0.1 cm.
Pelvimeter 2 is applied in sagital measuring of the chest. By contrast to pelvimeter 1 it has rounder arms at the end and so it can perform better. The scale is 60 cm in width, calibrated to 0.25 cm. The result is read on the inside of the sliding scale. This instrument is most frequently used in gynecology and it is called gynecology compasses.
Cephalometer is identical to pelvimeter, but it is smaller and with a smaller measuring scale. The scale has a span up to 30 cm and it is calibrated to 0.1 cm. It serves to measure smaller lengths and widths of the body, that is, the length and width of the head and parts of the head.. It measures with accuracy of 0.1 cm.
Sliding compasses serve to measure smaller distances on the body and mostly to measure diameter of joints. There are several different types (e.g. sliding compasses by Martin have a scale of 20 cm whereas the sliding compasses with nonius have a span of 15 cm. In both, the scale is calibrated to 0.1 cm. Prior to using this instrument, it is necessary to mark the points and the result is read on the line which overlaps the inner edge of the compasses’ arm. Its accuracy is 0.1 cm.
Before starting the measuring, one must check accuracy of the instrument and calibrate it if necessary. According to the research tasks, technical conditions for precise and correct results should be provided.